Baboquivari Monster: Interview 2

By Darlene Arvizu

             I knew that they had introduced the Mexican wolf back into the wild. I knew that there was a coyote problem near my property, particularly because of the chickens I raise. I raise me some beautiful buff orpingtons and marans, they lay some big eggs and they’re sweet. I get them their favorite snack: corn on the cob. They come right up to me like I’m Moses or something. Follow me around the yard. I got me about forty – the boy, “Tex” – he keeps to himself but he gives me some fine ladies that lay plenty.

             Since it was the fall season the girls were beginning to molt, you know, their feathers come off for a new plumage. Anyway, the girls weren’t laying much so I had to rake the coop up once a week to get rid of the feathers. Now this situation actually occurred over two nights: As I went to the coop I noticed a long trail of dried blood that moved from the coop out into the grassland and mesquite trees that surrounded my yard. From the coop there was a side panel that had been ripped in half FROM THE TOP down. Something that happen to reach about eight feet had taken the panel and pulled it down. On the siding were deep heavy claw marks, like a bear’s claw. The chickens were nowhere to be seen. I had gotten worried since they are my primary source of income after retirement.

             I followed the blood trail. The only thing I had with me was my rake. I held it like a spear, ready to encounter anything that came about. The first thing I picked up from the grass was a chicken foot, torn at the thigh and stuck with grass shards and blood. I put it in my apron and went further into the grass. Keep in mind this was early morning so I knew there were still coyotes hunting and I didn’t want them to have any taste of my girls to keep them returning for more. Besides the side panel being torn open, I had made the assumption it was just a coyote that had somehow crawled in from the top and broke the panel.

             But then I turned around a tree and there it was! A big, hairy thing, looking at me from the grass. I can see it’s large shoulders slunk in, keeping a low profile. It’s pointy ears had black tips, like a lynx and it had deep dark eyes that glinted in the sunlight. It just stared at me. I held up the rake and spun it in my hand toward the beast. It didn’t flinch. As I bent down to pick up a rock it began to move. By the time I grabbed a heavy stone the beast had disappeared into the thick grass toward a creek.

             As I came to the kill site I had found three of my girls mauled up and eaten. Feathers were everywhere. I wasn’t really afraid of the whole situation, more shocked really.

             I returned to find that my girls had hidden in a pile of wood near the house. I picked one up and held it – the feathers were cold, telling me she and the others had been there all night. I managed to fix the panel and put in some reinforcement screws to keep back the animals.

             Since I am a lonely girl I decided to spend the night outside under the stars near the coop. I had me a trusty six-shooter filled with snake shot. I didn’t want to hurt anything or anybody but I figure a few pellets in the butt would shy away any hungry predator. That night I had made a fire by the coop to keep warm. As I was dozing off I smelt a musky odor and as soon as it reached my nostrils the girls began to make noise – as if something was spooking them.

             I slouched up from the ground and looked across the flames of the fire – in the distance, at the grassline, I can see two black eyes staring at me. Before I could grab hold of my shooter, it disappeared, convert like. The girls settled down and I stayed awake all night before calling the sheriff.

-Darlene Arvizu (Arivaca resident, artist and chicken farmer)

“Baboquivari Monster” encounter interview, recorded December 2016

Arivaca in the 1930s, part 2 

by Mary Kasulaitis

August 2017

As the 1930s wore on, most people in Arivaca continued as before.  The federal government began establishing programs to put people back to work. One of those locally useful programs was the Civilian Conservation Corps, the idea being that infrastructure would be created or improved while providing assistance to young men who otherwise had no prospect of jobs. In this program, roads, water development, fire trails and recreation areas were built, all across the country, but mostly in the West in the National Forests.  A camp was started in 1935 at Peña Blanca, southeast of Arivaca.  Something like 150 young men at a time populated the camp. The first group was from Texas and Oklahoma.  Locals weren’t hired, except for a few specialized jobs such as bookkeeping and trainers, who were experienced men recruited from the local construction industries. The young men built the Nogales Ranger Station and made significant improvements to the Ruby Road over the mountain to Nogales. Specifically they created drainage ditches and culverts and shored up the edges, so that it was finally a relatively safe road. This was particularly important during the period that the Ruby Mine was active. At that time the Peña Blanca Lake did not exist. Groups came and went over the years until the camp closed in the early 40s. The WPA was another program that made infrastructure improvements, but in Tucson, not in the Arivaca area. 

Another program created by the federal government in 1936 was the Rural Electrification Administration, which brought power to the far reaches of the country through loans to cooperatives.  However, Arivaca did not receive this power until the mid-1950s when Trico Electric Cooperative started running lines into the area, but it has made all the difference in the world to life in Arivaca.  

When the Ruby Mine reopened in 1934, life changed for the better in Arivaca.  There were jobs to be had and the income was often spent at Caviglia’s Café and the Mercantile. Sadly, there was a constant stream of job seekers even after the mine had full employment and they had to be turned away. For those who were working, a family-style culture developed in Ruby that is remembered fondly to this day. Dr Woodard’s medical services extended to Arivaca.  A competition grew up between the softball teams of the two towns:  the Ruby Tigers and the Montana Miners, aka Ruby Miners, and the Arivaca Cowboys. They played teams from Nogales and Tucson. The girls too had teams:  the Arivaca Rancheritas played “the girls of Ruby,” since apparently the reporter didn’t know their team name. At Ruby they played on the tailings, but Fred Noon also constructed an extra field at Oro Blanco. Sometimes there are lots of games going on at once. Reporting on these and other events were students from Sopori School who belonged to the 4-H Club.  Thelma Kinsley, Erlinda Badilla, Norma Angulo, Antonia Encinas, Josephine Jackson and Felicidad Rodriguez were the reporters.  Many local events like rodeos, roundups and parties were part of the articles they published in the Arizona Daily Star in a column called “What people of neighboring communities are doing,” as often as twice a month. (Thelma is Danny Stewart’s mother) 

The community events promoted a spirit of good cheer.  A Cinco de Mayo fiesta was celebrated in 1935 in which a number of baseball games were played, as well as a horse race promoted by Angelo Caviglia.  Angelo’s horse won but in other competitions he was not as lucky.  The races were held at the Alamo Park field a mile east of Arivaca on Noon’s ranch. All these activities inspired the locals to request a Deputy Sheriff for when the festivities were over and no one had gone home yet.  Having a sheriff around sometimes got in the way of the fun, as when 12 slot machines were found in Continental and Arivaca and gathered up by Sheriff Ed Echols.  No arrests were made, as the officials were waiting for the owners to claim them. The 50th wedding anniversary the G.W. Barnes’ was celebrated with a grand march and an orchestra from Tucson at a dance in Arivaca, attended by 300 people. Reports in the Tucson newspaper from the “Bystanders Club” reveals some typical Arivaca activities,  such as  partying frequently thanks to Angelo and his bar. Who penned the reports is anonymous. 

Now that Prohibition was over, drinking too much was part of life in Arivaca and perhaps in the country as a whole.  Sometimes it got out of hand.  Clinton Northrup was reportedly found by a couple in Tucson lying on their couch in a state of dead drunk.  He thought he was still in Arivaca.  Apparently he had been looking for a friend and walked into the wrong house, where the front door was unlocked.  Many years later Clinton was not so lucky, because he died in fire in his house in Arivaca in the mid-1950s and is buried in Arivaca cemetery. It makes you wonder:  one Ross Cartier, a druggist from Washington state, was found in Arivaca after being mysteriously missing from Tacoma for 3 months. His absence was unexplained. Who knows? 

There were other mines working in the Oro Blanco and Arivaca Mining Districts.  In fact, the 100 biggest mine producers in Arizona in 1937 include Ajax, Las Guijas, Ruby Mine-Eagle Picher, and the Oro Blanco mines. (Arizona Republic, Nov 21, 1936.) At the Ajax in October 1936 a miner named Alberto Soto was killed in a cave-in when the ceiling dropped on him. Apparently the roof of the tunnel was not shored up sufficiently and it was later claimed that one timber could have saved him. He left a wife and three small children. Regulations to prevent this kind of accident were still in the future. 

The Soil Conservation Service in the Department of Agriculture was another government program that has had lasting impact on the topography of Arivaca cienaga. It was created in the wake of the Dust Bowl, when tons of topsoil was lifted by winds off the prairie of the Midwest, due to unwise farming practices combined with a drought and terrible dust storms.  There had been so much overproduction in the 1920s when the agricultural economy was down.  What could be done to prevent this in the future? First, government aid in the form of education, loans and grants to support better conservation practices was taken advantage of by local ranchers.  In the mid 30s, Charlie Boice built dikes across Arivaca Creek to hold back the water and direct it to the south side of the valley where he built a small pond.  Moving the Creek was not popular with the town residents who had used the waters for washing and drinking. Eventually that meant a well had to be provided (courtesy of Charlie Boice) and piping provided. Another rancher built a spreader dam across a large wash that feeds into the Creek to direct its flow.  Due to the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934, fencing was promoted in the interest of controlling grazing. Fencing pastures within a property allowed fields to be rested.  Active education programs informed farmers and ranchers about the choices they could make. Later renamed the Natural Resource Conservation Service, this agency is still in the business of assisting farmers and ranchers in conserving the land they own. 

Arivaca Ranch owner Charlie Boice got in the news in another way:  in 1935 he fenced off the Arivaca-Sasabe Road, making a detour necessary for Arivaca residents. You had to use a trail along the foothills.  Exactly why he did it is not known, but it had to do with the State land pasture that he leased for cattle in that area. Obviously, there was an outcry and officially protested and Pima County eventually made him take it down. In that same area,  he and Eva Wilbur Cruce continued their feud on the land and in the courts.  But she was not the only person in that family:  her uncle Charles Wilbur had been pressuring the County for years to make improvements in the road between Arivaca and Highway 286 in the Altar Valley, partly in the interest of mining activity and the needs of large trucks. The road had been officially dedicated in 1928 but it wasn’t in good shape and was often impassible in bad weather.  In 1937, after a petition signed by more than 100 local people, the County finally ordered the Engineer to do the road work as soon as possible and then maintain it afterwards.  It was not paved until the 1970s.

Continued next time. 

  

Arivaca Yesterdays – Arivaca in the 1930’s

Mary Kasulaitis

July 2017

 

Arivaca in the early 1930s

 

What we think of as the Depression era of the 1930s began years before with a depressed agricultural industry all across the U.S. that had lasted a decade. Without price supports or controls (which came later) farmers unknowingly planted more and more crops, thus driving the prices down. There were many small farms in those days, with starving farmers who knew no other livelihood. This was one of the reasons for the stock market crash of 1929. Lack of regulation of banks and the stock market was another. Despite the fact that the Federal Reserve was established as far back as 1913 to protect against the frequent “Panics” or depressions that had been occurring since the 1850s, regulation was not yet sufficient to control speculation.

The “Roaring Twenties” was a time when stock market speculation went wild and economic prosperity seemed endless. “The era saw the large-scale adoption of automobiles, telephones, motion pictures, radio and household electricity, as well as unprecedented industrial growth, accelerated consumer demand and aspirations, and significant changes in lifestyle and culture. The media began to focus on celebrities, especially sports heroes and movie stars.” In Arivaca, life went on much as it had before, with the addition of the automobile and radio.

The stock market crash in 1929 was just the beginning of the depression. In those days there was little imagination to remedy the problems that occurred.  Despite the fact that President Herbert Hoover was a progressive Republican, the predominant “laissez faire” mentality of the party (and previous President Coolidge) did not allow for federal government intervention.  Hoover held office until 1932 when things had gone really downhill.  By then it was obvious that pulling yourself up by the bootstraps was not within the ability of everyone in America.

More and more people were out of work and hungry, but during the Hoover era there was still an attempt to have relief provided by local charities unattached to the government or by state and local government, rather than federal.  By the middle of 1933, Pima County was having to deal with a great increase in the number of indigents, many of them now white middle class people, more than they ever had before. The number of people now unable to pay their property taxes had exacerbated the problem. Veterans (World War I and Spanish American War) had been having compensation and pension cuts, throwing them onto the public welfare rolls as well.  Two Arivaca teachers, Helen Noon and Nina Fay Adams were asked to act for the Tucson Organized Charities as distribution agents of local indigent relief. They had to make a survey of their district as to the number and condition of people in need and forward the information to the group who would provide relief services. The Board of Supervisors was anxious to work closely with state agencies since their own resources were overwhelmed.  An increased budget was sent to the Arizona State Board of Public Welfare in Phoenix.

Franklin D Roosevelt, a Democrat, was elected President and took office in March, 1933. He immediately began to forge a different path to stability. Within his first 100 days he and his team had created a number of federal government programs to provide immediate relief.  The slogan was: Relief (for the unemployed and poor), Recovery (of the economy) and Reform (of the financial system.) The New Deal was a series of programs that created government controls and regulations to provide stability and promote prosperity, in an attempt “to orchestrate the general welfare out of a myriad of competing self-interests.”  Since the federal government had not done this before in any organized way, it was new ground.  It was trial and error, but the conditions for many people in America were so desperate that any effort brought some hope.  The terrible desperation in the South and in the farming heartland of America was so extreme as to be unimaginable today. Imagine if the only affordable food available was “splits”: broken pinto beans that were culled in the sorting process. Perhaps some were lucky to have even that.

Back home in Arivaca, people were surviving on traditional Sonoran food: beans and tortillas, along with whatever they could grow in their gardens and wild plants.  If you worked on a ranch, beef might appear on the menu as well.  According to a census, there were 511 people in the area with 21 farms (or ranches), however the 1930 census showed more like 350 people in the town, with 80% being Spanish speaking.

One of the big changes for Arivaca was the purchase in 1931 of the 300,000 acre Arivaca Ranch by the Boice brothers, Henry, Frank and Charlie.  In those days it included the Tres Bellotas and Jarillas Ranches and Rancho Seco, besides what we think of now as the Arivaca Ranch.  Later they bought the K-X. Charlie was named as the manager, and he set to work making changes all over the valley, which meant keeping people employed. He built dikes across the Arivaca Cienaga, diverting the water away from the townsite and building the pond.  Using mules and wagons to haul equipment and cement, he built water catchments all over the remote areas of the ranch.  He moved the Tres Bellotas road up onto Black Mesa. After the death of Agustin Wilbur in 1933, when his daughter Eva moved back to town and took over their ranch west of town, Charlie demanded she take her 700 straying horses off his adjoining property.  When she did not, or perhaps would not,  he had them shot. A feud ensued which lasted until 1950. Some of the 21 smaller ranches mentioned above were purchased by Charlie, expanding the ranch to its largest extent ever.

Agustin Wilbur was not the only well known person to pass away during the early 30s, with their children taking over the family businesses. His mother, Rafaela Suastegui de Wilbur, had died in 1932. Dr. Adolphus H. Noon passed away in Nogales in 1931, but his son Arthur was already managing the Oro Blanco ranch.  Bernardo Caviglia passed away in  1932 and his son Angelo took over his many properties.  Angelo had always wanted a saloon, so he built a dance hall on the SE corner of Main Street and Ruby Road.  Prohibition had been repealed in 1933, just in time for Angelo’s business to take off.  For years he held dances and fiestas, horse races and parties, fueled by the Ruby folks who came down in droves.  In 1934, on the way home to Ruby at night, one Ramon Redondo died when the car he was riding in went around a curve and his door flew open.  He fell out and broke his neck. A marker is still there roadside  to commemorate his death.

Crime did not avoid Arivaca.  In 1931, a domestic feud between Frank Cortez and Santiago Padilla culminated in a shootout in the cienaga, in which Padilla was killed.  Cortez was found guilty of manslaughter (although tried for murder) and sentenced to the maximum 9-10 years. In late 1932 one Jose Villasenor was convicted of importing and concealing cocaine and sentenced to 18 months in prison.  The defense said he was a victim of entrapment by three narcotics agents from three different agencies.  The cocaine had been stashed somewhere along the Arivaca Road, but the seller was from Nogales. Villasenor was apparently from California. In another crime, the Arivaca Mercantile, owned now by the Boices, was broken into and robbed on February 24, 1933.

Mining continued in the area, with new work going on at the Yellow Jacket gold mine, briefly.  Over in the Guijas valley, north of town, a 50-ton tungsten mill was being installed in 1930.  Tungsten was the mineral with the most interest, and during the 30s General Electric bought the mine and operated it for some time. The Montana mine at Ruby had started up in 1926 by the Eagle Picher Company but had to close down in 1931 due to the depression. However development work was ongoing in anticipation of reopening,  which did happen in 1934. In the meantime many folks were out of work. Some began prospecting for themselves, hoping to find some salable ore, especially gold.  Panning in the local creeks became a constant pastime.

The United States went off the gold standard in 1934 because “adherence to the gold standard prevented the Federal Reserve from expanding the money supply to stimulate the economy, fund insolvent banks and fund government deficits that could “prime the pump” for an expansion.” Other countries had been doing the same. The Depression was world-wide, not just in the U.S.  This also meant that prospectors could get far less for their gold than before.  However, the same thing had happened to silver in 1893 when the U.S. went off silver. Both metals had been mined in this area. The Montana mine was a lead and zinc mine but gold and silver paid the bills. (continued next month)

Refs include articles from the Arizona Daily Star and Freedom from fear: the American people in Depression and War, 1929-1945 by David M. Kennedy)

 

 

 

Baboquivari Monster: Interview 1

By Francis “Frankie” Jenkins

It was a long day of me moving brush from the bottom of my yard. I’d been in the process of clearing an area for a pump. I’m done with hauling water back and forth from Green Valley and I’ve saved enough to get me a decent system. So as I was locking up my tool shed I had heard a loud screaming noise that ended in a howling yelp. It lasted several seconds and what got me shook up was that I knew that noise had come from somewhere on my property. The sun was going down and the moon was rising. I was close to ignoring the sound and contemplating on getting my camera out to take photos of the illuminating orb, but something in the back of my mind told me to check it out.

I was hesitant on getting my shotgun out with the flashlight: I didn’t want to come across someone by accident and make an unforgiving error. I took off down the hill into the mesquite bosque and immediately my vision was darkened by the overhanging branches. Out of the corner of my eye I can slowly see the horizon rise around me. I had gotten down to the bottom of the property and sunk my feet in the sandy wash. Quickly I saw there were other tracks, big tracks, with obvious talons at least an inch long attached to all five digits. As I looked closer I can see a line of blood between the indentations and in fear I propped up my trust side-by-side under the shoulder. The light dimmed ahead of me as it defracted into the branches. Fifty yards ahead I can hear something walking. It grunted heavily like a dying moose. In the sand the blood trail was thicker and warm with freshness. I dropped my light to hide my profile and followed the trail.

The sand sunk my boots deep and it gave a gravel noise that I could not mute, but whatever the animal was, it wasn’t hindered by my presence. As I approached a bend in the wash, a thick musky smell of a putrid wet skunk permeated the air. Within the smell I can taste the rusty blood from a recently deceased animal. I went to the bend of the wash and crouched down on the tall five foot bank and crept slowly over the top.

There, I saw it. A large wild beast with large pointed ears on the back of black and grey fur coat. It was twice the size of a full-grown man and it’s shoulders demonstrated superior physique. The arms were wet and with closer inspection, they were wet with blood. Dangling from the claws was a limp mule buck, flesh like spilt pasta. The buck groaned – it was still alive! In an instant, the creature responded with one bite across the animal’s neck. The cracking sound of bone jolted the buck’s legs – inconveniently I coughed in reaction! The large ears perked up and I hid behind the bank. I cocked the right hammer of the gun and slowly raised the barrel over my head.

For a moment the ground moved and I can hear the heavy thumping of the creature stampeding away from the area. I closed my eyes, holding the finger on the trigger.

In a second I turned and looked over the bank: the buck hung from a large mesquite branch, legs dangling over the wash drenched in blood and organs. I moved around the bend, looking up in all angles. The musky smell was gone. As I looked up I can see a large trampled trail that plowed over another bank that went through a split tree and up over the edge. The creature was gone.

-Francis “Frankie” Jenkins (Arivaca resident, retired military)

“Baboquivari Monster” encounter interview, recorded February 2017

Arivaca Ranch in the 1920s – M. Kasulaitis

Arivaca Ranch in the 1920s –

 By Mary Kasulaitis

 As the 1920s open in Arivaca, the 10th Cavalry was still occupying a barracks on Main Street, but it would soon pull out.  The population of Arivaca was predominately (85%) Spanish speaking people, most of whom had origins in Sonora. They homesteaded for themselves or worked on ranches and in the mines. Almost everyone else spoke Spanish as a second language. The Mexican Revolution and World War I were over, but almost immediately there were two things that impacted the residents.  One was not man made:  a year without rain in 1920 impacted the cattle business in a drastic way. If you can’t feed them, either they die or you get rid of them. The Arivaca Ranch (largest ranch in the area) lost a lot of cattle and in those days you couldn’t just sell them easily the way you can now.  The Cienaga wasn’t fenced, so cattle went into the mud and got stuck and died.  After that, a downturn in the cattle industry in the nation at large made it difficult to sell the ones that had survived. Eugene Shepherd was a part owner of Las Jarillas ranch, which soon was consolidated with Arivaca Ranch (Arivaca Land and Cattle Co.)  which he managed.  He then homesteaded Tres Bellotas ranch. The Arivaca Land and Cattle Company had issued more stock in 1922 in the interest of development, as well as buying 4500 more head of cattle, but this was to no avail due to the national downturn of the agricultural industry. Other partners in the ALCC, John Bogan and Ramon Ahumada, passed away in the late 20s.  In 1927, Shepherd held a big rodeo and BBQ at the Arivaca Ranch with 500 people in attendance and participating.  Most men in Arivaca were employed as cowboys and they loved to show off their roping and riding skills. Nevertheless, Shepherd lost the ranch, but it was held together by those who held the mortgage until 1929 when it was sold to Border Land and Cattle Company.

In those days, Arivaca was closely tied to the mining camps in the area.  A less well-known mining operation was of great benefit to the economy of Arivaca in the 1920s. Under the management of L.P. “Doc” Merriman, the Oreona Development Company came to town in about 1922 and began working claims at the Ajax, two miles south of town.  They built a large (75 ton) mill just west of town where the Amado mine is, hiring many locals. (Evidence of this millsite is still visible)  Merriman and James Kelso ran this operation until 1929 when it was sold to a California syndicate. What effect the national economic downturn had on this syndicate isn’t known.  Jim Kelso has blessed us with a number of photos of Arivaca that he took during this period, provided to us by his son, who was also a good storyteller.

More well known is Ruby, 13 miles away, which later became the largest mining operation in the area in the 1930s. On February 27, 1920 the Ruby store was attacked by two bandits who murdered the storekeepers, Alexander and John Fraser. The bandits came up from Mexico through California Gulch and attacked the men in the store.  Right before this happened there were 10th Cavalry soldiers stationed at Arivaca, Casa Piedra and Bear Valley, on the routes used by people going and coming from Mexico.  But they had recently been pulled out.  Possibly they would have deterred the murders. But in the next few months there were more depredations, stolen cattle and apparently an incident of “shooting up the town” which led the Arivaca people to ask for two rangers who could remain in the area and enforce the law. The Pima County Sheriffs’ department did not have the funds to do this so it was denied. (AZ Daily Star, 2/7/21)  A few months later, the next Ruby Store owners, Frank and Myrtle Pearson, were killed by seven bandits on August 26, 1921.  (See Ruby, Arizona:  Mining Mayhem and Murder, for details of these murders) This led to a demand for more law enforcement.  On 7 March 1923,  W.L. Carpenter was sworn in as Deputy Sheriff at Arivaca, for which he received $35 a month. According to the newspaper, it was necessary since Arivaca was so remote and the residents had petitioned for law enforcement.

Many people had moved from Mexico into the U.S., fleeing the Mexican Revolution of 1910-20.  Immigration became a concern at the national level because of a great influx of people from Europe and China as well as Mexico in that decade, leading to the Immigration Act of 1917, followed by quota laws in 1921 and 1924.  Mexican agricultural and mine workers were waived from this, at the request of employers, but enforcement was also lax.  People without the proper papers were still taken advantage of and many who had settled in the U.S. for years lost their property to unscrupulous land grabbers. The Roman Catholic chapel, El Sagrado Corazon de Jesus, built in the early part of the 20th century, was demolished in the early 1920s by the Arivaca Land and Cattle Company due (probably) to a land ownership dispute.

Prohibition had a major impact on Arivaca and Ruby.  The 18th Amendment to the Constitution made the selling, transportation and making of liquor prohibited in the United States.  Of course, this was not a popular law, and immediately people began making their own in stills, or importing it from Mexico now that the military was gone.  The road up California Gulch was a handy way to bring it in. One of the most important things was that people with no jobs or money immediately had a ready source of income in bootlegging. Prohibition had a negative impact on the country as a whole because it made people feel as though they didn’t have to obey laws they didn’t like. Since drinking was a traditional and popular activity for many subcultures in the U.S., many people ignored the law. This encouraged the growth of organized crime in the larger urban areas. Not until 1933 was the 21st Amendment passed to repeal Prohibition.

Prohibition, illegal immigration, and border related crime were behind the establishment of the Border Patrol, created on May 28, 1924.  The new immigration laws had to be enforced.  Later that year, the government advertised in the Tucson papers for potential agents, who had to have law enforcement or military experience.  Soon a cadre of officers were on the job.  In February of 1925 a pack train of 11 horses and a mule loaded with liquor, led by 6 men (all Mexicans) came up California Gulch, across to Bear Valley and up to Twin Buttes, where they were caught by Border Patrol officers, all of whom happened to be locals who knew the country. On Aug. 31, 1926 one  Caledonio Mendoza died while resisting arrest.  He was shot about a mile from Arivaca at a traffic stop held by Border Patrol officers on a Saturday night.  He swung his car around and someone shot at the officers.  They returned fire and hit Mendoza.  The troubles facing Arivaca people in the 1920s were mostly created by the agricultural woes and the new federal laws on immigration and the prohibition of liquor. Laws that no one had to worry about before. But there were as yet few regulations on banking and stock market speculation.  The weaknesses of laissez-faire capitalism were surfacing. In October 1929, the stock market went into a severe decline, helping create an economic downturn that would ultimately affect Arivaca.

In other happier news, the population of Arivaca in 1920 was about 320 people, many of them children. Arivaca’s two-room school had 55 elementary school students in 1922 up 17 from the year before. The teachers during most of that decade were Bertha and JP McDole in the early years and then Alice and WJ Barnett from 1926-1932. Many Arivaca children were awarded health certificates as a result of a program established by President Hoover in 1929.  Arivaca also benefited from a newly constructed Pima County road from Arivaca Junction to Arivaca and then across to the also new Sasabe road (286).  A bridge was completed in 1921 across Arivaca creek about 7 miles northwest of Arivaca. Heavy rains that summer immediately put it to the test, which it passed.

Next time:  Arivaca in the 1930s.